Irregular skin color due to the low or over production of Melanin is usually known as skin pigmentation. Due to damaged or unhealthy skin cells, melanin production is affected. Darkness or lightness of the skin’s color is reliant on the amount of Melanin created by the skin cells. Uneven patches on the skin are due to unbalanced Melanin creation. Lighter patches of skin tone may appear due to low melanin production while overproduction of it will produce dark patches on the skin.
Factors such as pregnancy, unprotected sun exposure and Addison’s disease are some of the most known reasons for skin pigmentation. There are several cases of skin pigmentation and the most common ones are Melasma, Solar Lentigo and Vitiligo. Cases can range from Epidermal and Dermal conditions. Skin disorders found only on the [outer layer of the skin is classified as an Epidermal condition. Skin Hypopigmentation that is rooted into the inner layers of the skin is categorized as Dermal.
Dark spots commonly found on the face would be categorized as a condition known as Melasma. Common known causes of melasma would be excessive sun exposure and pregnancy. Treatments for Melasma are usually through the use of topical chemical peels for subtle cases while more elevated cases may undergo diamond peels and even laser treatments.
What may seem as common freckles, age, liver or sun spots for some are actually known as Solar Lentigo, another condition of skin pigmentation. Solar Lentigo is basically caused by overexposure to the sun without ample protection. Solar Lentigo is normal for those over the age of 50. Treatments for this condition, despite the fact that it appears easy to treat, are more advanced like laser and cryosurgery.
Very few Melanin production leads to lighter patches on the skin which is a skin ailment known as Vitiligo. Cases can become extreme spanning to various very light or even white toned patches completely different from a person’s natural skin color. People with darker skin tones usually are more prone to this type of skin pigmentation. There is still no actual known cause determined by experts on this type of skin condition. There are many cases that may be the reason for this type of skin pigmentation such as sun burns, genetic and hereditary cases, immunologic and even neurogenic factors.
For all known causes of skin pigmentation, the most frequent factor would be because of sun exposure. Skin cells are easily damaged and do become unhealthy due to unprotected sun exposure. It is highly recommended that sun screen is used, specifically those with high SPF formulation.