Skin pigmentation can be a result of location and therefore race.
Adaptation and mutation:
The occurrence of divergence in the genes happens as a result of population change by a genetic mutation. If DNA exists all the time to become different a mutation happens as a result. As a result of few mutations the organism’s death occurs before giving birth. But few evidences have proved that mutation is advantageous or having compatible features with the life that will result in a recently made species.
Adaptation is actually the population change that happens through the natural selection process. If some have more desirable trait than there are more chances for the survival of any organism and will definitely live to pass away the trait. The existing traits are favored by the adaptation while the new traits are created by mutation.
Actually the skin pigmentation is an adaptation to UV light:
Different researches by Nina G. Jablonski and George who are connected with the department of Anthropology of the California Academy of sciences situated in San Francisco encourage the theory that the skin pigmentation is basically an adaptation for the exposure of UV light. As we all ware about the fact that a human life exists near to equator that why are facing the direct exposure of UV light that may causes dark color pigmentation.
The production of vitamin D3 and Folate Photolysis:
This kind of pigmentation differences are usually an adaptations and it requires as responses, the Vitamin D and a perfect protection for the skin damaging that occurs as a result of the exposure of UV light. The skin get extra UV light than the normal amount that is required as being near to the equator for producing the vitamin D. But on the contrary this exposure also helps to photolysis or to destroy folate the necessary vitamin B for the development of fetal, Bones marrow and the creation for the red blood cell.
The frequency of adaptation for the Skin Pigmentation:
Jalblonski and Chaplin suggested that the populations of human beings have to experience the adaptation of multiple kinds which may be form light to dark color and again back light pigmentation as they move in between the greater UV light exposure area and the low UV light exposure area. These adaptations take place for the short periods of geological time.