Skin pigmentation is a disorder that affects the color balance of the skin cells affected by melanin production. Once damaged or considered as unhealthy, skin cells can under or over make amounts of Melanin. Darkness or lightness of the skin’s color is reliant on the amount of Melanin created by the skin cells. Uneven patches on the skin
are due to unstable Melanin production. Lighter patches of skin color may appear due to low melanin production while overproduction of it will produce dark patches on the skin.
Natural reasons like pregnancy, self inflicted cases like no ample sun protection to diseases such as Addison’s disease are the most common reasons behind of skin pigmentation. Skin pigmentation has varying cases like Melasma, Solar Lentigo and Vitiligo which are usually known cases known for this kind of skin condition. Epidermal and Dermal skin pigmentation are usually the classifications to initially determine the level of skin disorder. When the disorder is seen only on the external layer of the skin, it is classified as Epidermal. Dermal on the other hand is a classification where the discoloration goes deeper into the skin tissue.
Irregular skin tone with noticeable dark patches on the face
would usually be classified as Melasma. Common known causes of melasma would be excessive sun exposure and pregnancy. Usually, Melasma is treated using topical chemical peels or for more advanced cases, it is treated by diamond peels and laser treatments.
Age, liver or sun spots are usually noted by most as a normal skin condition but these are actually classified as a form of skin Hypopigmentation medically termed as Solar Lentigo. The main cause of Solar Lentigo, as the name prescribes, would be long, unprotected exposure to the sun. Solar Lentigo is usual for those over the age of 50. Despite the fact that the ailment may look natural and easy to treat, it actually requires more new methods such as laser and cryosurgery.
Lighter patches as opposed to darker patches occur due to the insufficiency of Melanin production in the skin which would be a disorder called Vitiligo. This type of skin condition is more noticeable due to the level of discoloration which is usually the complete opposite of the natural tone of the skin. Those that have deeper skin tones are most likely to acquire this kind of skin condition. Several causes may lead to this kind of skin pigmentation but exact causes are still unknown. Some assume that this condition comes from sun burns while other factors considered are due to genetic, hereditary, neurogenic and immunologic reasons.
For all known causes of skin Hyperpigmentation, the most recurrent factor would be due to sun exposure. Unprotected from the sun, our skin cells are easily damaged. It is highly recommended that sun screen is used, specifically those with high SPF formulation.