Pigmentation is a skin problem common to people of all races and ethnicities.  It shows up by sudden change of the skin color.  The skin may become darker or lighter than other areas of the skin as the case may be.  When anyone noticed this sudden change on their skin, they should not worry or panic.  The best thing to do is to seek the advice of a skin doctor also known as dermatologist.  There are many things that can cause pigmentation; exposure to ultraviolet radiation, medication, chemical material, hormones, deficiencies in vitamins A and C. Skin problems such as eczema can also cause pigmentation.

What really happen is that pigmentation occurs as a result of overproduction or underproduction of melanin pigment in the body. Melanin is generated by melanocytes which is the colour of the skin.  Therefore, the amount of melanin currently available in the body will influence the colour of the skin.  Tyrosinase is an enzyme activated by melanin to generate the skin, eyes and hair colour in people.  Melanin also protects the skin against ultra violet rays. It can defend the skin against the harmful effects of excessive sun light.  Pigmentation is commonly noticed among the Indian and Mediterranean people.  Pigmentation forms slowly on the surface of the skin and is normally noticed at later time in people’s life due to years of exposure to sunlight without protection.

There are two types of pigmentation; hormonal pigmentation caused by melasma and chloasma and photomelanois.  The former is normally generated by female hormones, i.e. estrogen and progesterone.  It is common to women who are pregnant or those using contraceptive pills. The second type photomelanosis is caused by exposing the sun to excessive sunlight and can be noticed on people’s face, back and the neck regions.  Pigmentation can be treated in different ways enumerated below.

People affected with pigmentation problems should make use of sunscreen while under the sun rays.  This is the best way to start treatment and at the same time put off skin pigmentation.  Sunscreen defends the body against the sun.  There are creams that can be applied to protect the skin against the harmful effects of sun light.  It has also been discovered that other forms of light can cause pigmentation, such as fluorescent light and other forms of lights.  It is also necessary to use ultraviolet blockers to protect the skin against burning.

Vitamins can also help in removing pigmentation from the skin.  Vitamin A and C is the best ones to look for in treating skin pigmentation.  Both vitamins A and C can normalize the skin and also stop the production of enzyme tyrosinase from activating the production of melanin.
Other methods of treating pigmentation are; Alpha Hydroxyl acids, Kojic acid, Azelaic acid and Laser technology.


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