Skin pigmentation is a disorder that affects the color balance of the skin cells affected by melanin production. Due to damaged or unhealthy skin cells, melanin production is affected. Melanin, which is produced by skin cells, is what basically determines the skin color. Uneven patches on the skin are due to unstable Melanin production. Too much melanin produced makes the skin darker while too little melanin will make the skin lighter.
Natural reasons like pregnancy, self inflicted cases like very little sun protection to diseases such as Addison’s disease are the most common causes of skin pigmentation. There are several cases of skin pigmentation and the most common ones are Melasma, Solar Lentigo and Vitiligo. Epidermal and Dermal skin pigmentation are commonly the categories to initially determine the level of skin disorder. Epidermis of the skin is classified as an Epidermal condition. Skin pigmentation that is rooted into the inner layers of the skin is classified as Dermal.
Dark spots usually found on the face would be categorized as a condition called Melasma. Sun exposure without proper protection and pregnancy are the most common causes of Melasma. Treatments for Melasma are usually through the utilization of topical chemical peels for subtle cases while more advanced cases may undergo diamond peels and even laser treatments.
What may seem as common freckles, age, liver or sun spots for some are actually known as Solar Lentigo, another condition of skin Hypopigmentation. When skin is usually exposed to the sun and is unprotected, most people develop Solar Lentigo. This type of skin ailment is mostly seen on people who are in their 50’s or 60’s. Treatments for this condition, despite the fact that it appears easy to treat, are more advanced like laser and cryosurgery.
Lighter patches as opposed to darker patches appear due to the insufficiency of Melanin production in the skin which would be a ailment called Vitiligo. Cases can become severe spanning to various very light or even white colored patches completely the opposite of a person’s natural skin color. Those that have darker skin tones are most likely to experience this kind of skin condition. There is still no actual known cause determined by experts on this type of skin condition. Some assume that this condition comes from sun burns while other factors considered are due to genetic, hereditary, neurogenic and immunologic reasons.
Too much contact to the sun’s rays would be the most recognized factor behind general skin disorders. Without the proper amount of sun protection, skin cells are most likely to be damaged. It is highly recommended that sun screen is used, specifically those with high SPF formulation.