Darkening of the skin is known as hyperpigmentation. The cause of hyperpigmentation is production of excessive melanin by the skin cell of human body. The disorder can appear in persons of all races, skin types and complexions. Many factors are involved in causing the hyperpigmentation in human body such as excessive sun light exposure, drug reactions, hormonal changes, genetics, and acne techniques. Usually, it is a risk-free skin condition but needs to be cured. Following are some treatment options available for hyperpigmentation:
i) Bleaching cream
Bleaching creams are made to lighten the colored spots on skin. They are easily available over the counter. To prevent hyperpigmentation, doctors prescribe these creams along with other drugs for its treatment. They are also used to reduce the visual discoloration that occurs due to hyperpigmentation. Hydroquinone in a 2 % formula is available in over the counter creams. The prescription creams include tretinoin or a mix of tertinoin, hydroquinone and cortisome cream. The other constituents may be azelaic acid and kojic acid. These creams are required to be used for months, and they are not more effective as compared to other treatments. It has also some side effects which include redness, dryness and paleness of skin tone.
It is a mini procedure of sandblasting the skin by vitamin C crystals, aluminum oxide crystals and other kind of gentle abrasives to remove the top layer of the skin (dead skin cells). The procedure is applied on most part of human body such as face, chest, neck, arms etc. The procedure is affordable than the cosmetic surgery. It has less side effects and very effective on skin of all types and colours. However it is successful and effective on those cases of dark spots or hyperpigmentation which are mild.
iii) Chemical peels
This method is used to improve the appearance of skin. It is usually performed on neck, face and hands. In this procedure a chemical solution is applied on skin for the period until it soaks into the pores. The chemical applied swells the skin and over the period of next 14 days the skin finally peels off.
iv) Laser skin resurfacing:
In this procedure a high powered laser is used to remove the discoloration of skin. Due to its deeper penetration in the skin, it removes multiple layers of skin. The recover period of this procedure is upto 3 weeks. The redness caused by the procedure lasts for months.
v) Intense Pulse Light Therapy (IPL)
Broadband visible light of a certain range is emitted from a non laser filtered flash lamp in pulses and applied on the hyperpigmented area of body. It breaks up the skin cells of hyperpigmented area. Its recovery time is fast. It is effective against pigmentation like freckles, liver spots, and dark brown patches. The therapy is available in clinics.